TheÂ relationship between religion and scienceÂ has been a focus of theÂ demarcation problem. Somewhat related is the claim thatÂ scienceÂ and religionÂ may pursue knowledge using different methodologies. TheÂ scientific methodÂ relies onÂ reasonÂ andÂ empiricism, religion acknowledgesÂ revelation, faithÂ andÂ sacredness. Some scholars say science and religion are separate, as inÂ John William DraperâsÂ conflict thesisÂ andÂ Stephen Jay GouldâsÂ non-overlapping magisteria, while others propose an interconnection. A variety of historical, philosophical, and scientific arguments have been put forth in favour of the idea that science and religion are in conflict. Historical examples of religious individuals or institutions promoting claims that contradict both contemporary and modernÂ scientific consensusÂ includeÂ creationism, and more recently,Â Pope Benedict XVIâs 2009 statements claiming that the use of condoms to combat the AIDS epidemic in Africa was ineffective and counterproductive.Â In theÂ Galileo affair, the acceptance, from 1616 to 1757, of the GreekÂ geocentric model (Ptolemaic system) by theÂ Roman Catholic Church, and its consequent opposition toÂ heliocentrism, was first called into question by the Catholic clericÂ Copernicus, and subsequently disproved conclusively byÂ Galileo, who was persecuted for his minority view. This text is a one-stop resource for all researchers, teachers, and students involved in this crucial area of study.