With 1,210,000,000 people, India is currently the worldâs second largest country. India crossed the one billion mark in the year 2000, one year after theÂ worldâs populationÂ crossed the six billion threshold. Demographers expect Indiaâs population to surpass the population of China, currently the most populous country in the world, by 2030. At that time, India is expected to have a population of more than 1.53 billion while Chinaâs populationÂ is forecast to be at its peak of 1.46 billion. India is currently home to about 1.21 billion people, representing a full 17% of the earthâs population. Indiaâs 2011 census showed that the countryâs population had grown by 181 million people in the prior decade. When India gained independence from the United Kingdom sixty years ago, the countryâs population was a mere 350 million. In 2000, the country established a new National Population Policy to stem the growth of the countryâs population. One of the primary goals of the policy was to reduce the total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2010. One of the steps along the path toward the goal in 2010 was a total fertility rate of 2.6 by 2002. As the total fertility rate in India remains at the high number of 2.8, that goal was not achieved so it is highly unlikely that the total fertility rate will be 2.1 by 2010. This book is fed with the information of this subject. This book will be very useful for a wide range of interested groups.