Before the modern idea of research emerged, we had a term for what philosophers used to call research â logical reasoning. So, it should come as no surprise that some of the basic distinctions in logic have carried over into contemporary research. InÂ Systems of LogicÂ we discuss how two major logical systems, the inductive and deductive methods of reasoning, are related to modern research. Quality is one of the most important issues in research. We introduce the idea ofÂ validityÂ to refer to the quality of various conclusions you might reach based on a research project. The research process usually starts with a broad area of interest, the initial problem that the researcher wishes to study. For instance, the researcher could be interested in how to use computers to improve the performance of students. Once the basic data is collected, the researcher begins to try to understand it, usually by analysing it in a variety of ways. Even for a single hypothesis there are a number of analyses a researcher might typically conduct. At this point, the researcher begins to formulate some initial conclusions about what happened as a result of the computerized math program. The book provides readers with of some of the basic principles of this subject.