This work, drawn largely from Oriya sources provides a much-needed analysis of an important but often neglected topic. This is the first book that provides a comprehensive assessment of the many-sided contributions of Gourisankar Roy, Fakir Mohan Senapati, Radhanath Roy, Baikunthanath De and Maharaja Krushna Chandra Bhanj who were some of the foremost among the makers of ;modern Orissa. It explores the evolution of this area, its problems and triumphs, and studies the thoughts and deeds of these five towering personalities of Orissa in the second half of 19th century. It provides an overall picture of the different aspects of 19th century Orissa, social, political and cultural. The text is accessible to a broad readership and will be of service to students and scholars at all levels.