This book is written primarily for undergraduate students and pediatric practitioners. The postgraduate students can use it as a revision book before examinations. While compiling the book, the author has followed the recommendations by the MCI and the education cell of IAP. However, besides the syllabus cited by the MCI, a few chapters as well as topics have been added with a view to give an idea about the status of these diseases in children. Inclusion of these topics may help the general practitioners to screen children and refer at an early date to the appropriate facility. Students may ignore these chapters for examination purpose. With the belief that illustrations are more helpful than only text, descriptions in the book have been supported by relevant figures and flow charts, as much as possible. Detailed chapters on pediatric oncology, common surgical problems and rheumatic diseases have been included specially to help graduate doctors and practising pediatricians to help in early diagnosis and referral. The health problems in the third world countries are very much different than those in the western world. The physicians, therefore in such countries require more training in clinical skills rather than modern diagnostic aids which are at times not easily available for the doctors as well as the patients. This book is primarily aimed to fulfill this need.