Quick Review in Anatomy and Physiology

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Quick Review in Anatomy and Physiology

Quick Review in Anatomy and Physiology

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Quick Review in Anatomy and Physiology is designed to cater to the needs of students who are centre and focus of any academic activity. The purpose of this book is to present fundamental principles and facts of human anatomy and physiology in a Question-Answer Format which will help the students to review their knowledge quickly. Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts, and their relationships to one another. Physiology is the study of how the body and its parts work or function. Anatomy and physiology are always related. Structure determines what functions can take place. The intimate relationship between anatomy and physiology is stressed throughout this book to make your learning meaningful. Organized by systems, each chapter begins with the structuralfunctional relationship of the whole organ or system, and then moves the learner down the ladder of tissues and cells to the subcellular elements highlighting at each level the physiology inherent to that level of organization. The book is divided into five sections, each carrying the chapters related to the section. In order to emphasize the clinical significance of physiology to medical students, the necessary clinical aspects have been included at relevant places. The integration of anatomy and physiology in this study outline provides students with a focussed perspective of body structure and function. The human body is a complex machine. Its life begins as a single cell which is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. Differentiated cells of similar type are organized into tissues and different types of tissues combine to form organs which are linked together to form organ systems. This has been discussed in the two chapters covered under Section I: Organization of the human body consisting of 171 questions and answers in all. Perhaps the most striking thing about a cell is its organization. If we chemically analyze cells, we find that they are made up primarily of four elements—carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen plus much smaller amounts of several other elements. Cells have three major regions— nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. All cells exhibit irritability, digest foods, excrete wastes, and are able to reproduce, grow, move and metabolize. Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function are called tissues. The cells and the tissues are discussed in chapter two of the first section of this book. Each of the four basic tissue types plays a definite but different role in the body.