The aging of populations is taking place in both developed and developing countries due to the lowering of birth rates and death rates and increased life expectancy. In India, too, the numbers as well as the proportions of the population 60+ are showing a rising trend. This gives an indication of the tasks that lie ahead, specially since about half of this population belongs to vulnerable socio-economic groups. The World Assembly on Aging (1982) helped to focus attention on the situation of the aging and the policy and programme initiatives needed for this growing segment of the population. For developing countries like India, it meant, for the first time at the policy making level, review of the status of the aging, their problems and needs and the steps needed to meet them. There are very few publications on the aging in India although this is emerging as an important area of social concern. The present publication contains articles by experts from different disciplines and fields. It is divided into three parts. Part I deals with problems and needs, Part II with the potentialities, and Part III gives an action programme. A special feature of the publication is that it indicates how the potentialities of the aging can be harnessed for their own good as well as for the good of society.