I am glad to be meeting you with yet another supplement of TARGET JIPMER book. Big thanks for making TARGET JIPMER series the best book for JIPMER PGMEE preparation. This book series was started with the sole purpose of making model JIPMER questions accessible to PG aspirants. The questions have been solved by a team of subject experts from reputed academic backgrounds. This book is tailor-made for JIPMER PG entrance exam preparation. Most of our contributors are JIPMER alumni and have personally written JIPMER PG exams in the last few years and are well experienced and aware of the examination pattern. JIPMER questions are mostly taken from standard textbooks and articles. Though the pattern of JIPMER questions have changed in the last few years, the high yield area remains the same. You will understand this after going through all the volumes of 4th edition of TARGET JIPMER. We have incorporated a systematic approach in solving each and every question which can be appreciated while reading this book. The schematic diagrams, tables, illustrations, bulleted key points and references are the highlights of this book and will make reading and understanding of the material easier and effective. Every solved question will have a valid reference citing a standard textbook or article in order to increase the credibility of the answers. The focused explanations should help you solve questions from same topics in the future easily. I would like to thank all the contributors for their commitment and hard work that has led to the tremendous success of this book series. I wish to thank our publishers, Mr. Pawaninder Pal Vij and Mr. Anupam Vij, the Directors of Peepee Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd., who have always been a pillar of support to our team. I would also like to thank our publishing team for their relentless efforts in releasing this book in a short notice. I am deeply indebted to students for their overwhelming support, feedback and critical appraisal. We are looking forward to hear your feedback and are fully committed in bringing out better editions in the future. For JIPMER students, a JIPMERITE tag is a matter of pride which they carry as a badge of honour throughout their professional life. For most others it is a dream. I believe and hope that this book will make your dream come true.