The Naxalite-Maoist insurgency is a low-level war of Maoists against the Indian government. The insurgency started as a peasant rebellion in the eastern Indian village of Naxalbari in 1967 and has now spread to a large swath in the central and eastern parts of the country. In 2004 the Maoist rebel organization People’s War Group and the Maoist Communist Centre of India merged to form the Communist Party of India (Maoist). Naxalism in India has crossed all limits of tolerance. The so-called Naxalites are actually anti-national elements who also lack an agenda for public welfare. Today, the peace and security of the country is being challenged by threats emanating from cross-border terrorism, insurgency in north eastern areas and the emergence of left-wing extremism in certain parts of the country. These have direct implications not only for the development and prosperity of the affected regions but also affect the overall well being of our society. We need to address these concerns urgently and in totality.