Behavioural psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on observable behaviours. Conditioning, reinforcement and punishment are key concepts used by behaviourists. Behaviourists believe the ability to understand and predict irrational behaviour is the first step towards changing it. This has huge implications for governments seeking softer ways to influence citizen behaviour. Perhaps unsurprisingly, both Cameron and chancellor George Osborne are keen advocates of behaviourism.Â According to behaviourism, individualsâ response to different environmental stimuli shapes our behaviour. Behaviourists believe behaviour can be studied in a methodical and recognizable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. Thus, all behaviour can be clarified without the need to reflect on psychological mental states. The behaviourist school of thought maintains that behaviours as such can be described scientificallyÂ without recourse either to internalÂ physiologicalÂ events or toÂ hypothetical constructsÂ such as theÂ mind.Â Behaviourism comprises the position that all theories should haveÂ observationalÂ correlatesÂ but that there are no philosophical differences between publicly observable processes (such as actions) and privately observable processes (such as thinking and feeling). From earlyÂ psychologyÂ in the 19th century, the behaviourist school of thought ran concurrently and shared commonalities with theÂ psychoanalyticÂ andÂ Gestalt movements in psychology intoÂ the 20th century; but also differed from theÂ mental philosophyÂ of the Gestalt psychologists in critical ways. This book represents an essential source of up-to-date practical information on this subject.